Part 3. Home Care Agency Licensure Act.
§ 131E-135. Title; purpose.
(a) This Part shall be known as "Home Care Agency Licensure Act."
(b) The purpose of this Part is to establish licensing requirements for home care agencies. (1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1; c. 761, s. 34.)
§ 131E-136. Definitions.
As used in this Part, unless otherwise specified:
(1) "Commission" means the North Carolina Medical Care Commission.
(1a) "Geographic service area" means the geographic area in which a licensed agency provides home care services.
(2) "Home care agency" means a private or public organization that provides home care services.
(2a) "Home care agency director" means the person having administrative responsibility for the operation of the licensed agency
(2b) "Home care client" means an individual who receives home care services.
(3) "Home care services" means any of the following services and directly related medical supplies and appliances, which are provided to an individual in a place of temporary or permanent residence used as an individual's home:
a. Nursing care provided by or under the supervision of a registered nurse.
b. Physical, occupational, or speech therapy, when provided to an individual who also is receiving nursing services, or any other of these therapy services, in a place of temporary or permanent residence used as the individual's home.
c. Medical social services.
d. In-home aide services that involve hands-on care to an individual.
e. Infusion nursing services.
f. Assistance with pulmonary care, pulmonary rehabilitation or ventilation.
g. In-home companion, sitter, and respite care services provided to an individual.
h. Homemaker services provided in combination with in-home companion, sitter, respite, or other home care services.
The term does not include: health promotion, preventative health and community health services provided by public health departments; maternal and child health services provided by public health departments, by employees of the Department of Health and Human Services under G.S. 130A-124, or by developmental evaluation centers under contract with the Department of Health and Human Services to provide services under G.S. 130A-124; hospitals licensed under Article 5 of Chapter 131E of the General Statutes when providing follow-up care initiated to patients within six months after their discharge from the hospital; facilities and programs operated under the authority of G.S. 122C and providing services within the scope of G.S. 122C; schools, when providing services pursuant to Article 9 of Chapter 115C; the practice of midwifery by a person licensed under Article 10A of Chapter 90 of the General Statutes; hospices licensed under Article 10 of Chapter 131E of the General Statutes when providing care to a hospice patient; an individual who engages solely in providing his own services to other individuals; incidental health care provided by an employee of a physician licensed to practice medicine in North Carolina in the normal course of the physician's practice; or nursing registries if the registry discloses to a client or the client's responsible party, before providing any services, that (i) it is not a licensed home care agency, and (ii) it does not make any representations or guarantees concerning the training, supervision, or competence of the personnel provided. The term sitter does not include child care facilities licensed in accordance with Chapter 110 of the General Statutes. The term respite care does not include facilities or services licensed in accordance with Chapter 122C of the General Statutes. The terms in-home companion, sitter, homemaker, and respite care services do not include (i) services certified or otherwise overseen by the Department as not providing personal care or (ii) services administered on a voluntary basis for which there is not reimbursement from the recipient or anyone acting on the recipient's behalf.
(4) "Home health agency" means a home care agency which is certified to receive Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement for providing nursing care, therapy, medical social services, and home health aide services on a part-time, intermittent basis as set out in G.S. 131E-176(12), and is thereby also subject to Article 9 of Chapter 131E. (1971, c. 539, s. 1; 1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1983 (Reg. Sess., 1984), c. 1022, s. 4; 1987, c. 34, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1; c. 761, s. 34; 1997-443, s. 11A.90; 2005-276, s. 10.40A(m); 2008-127, s. 1.)
§ 131E-137. Services to be provided in all counties.
(a) Every county shall provide part-time, intermittent home care nursing services, and at least one of the following home care services: part-time, intermittent physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medical social work, or home health aide services.
(b) Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c. 59, s. 1.
(c) These services shall be provided by a home care agency licensed under this Part. The county may provide these services by contract with another home care agency in another county.
(d) Repealed by Session Laws 1985, c. 8, s. 1. (1977, 2nd Sess., c. 1184; 1979, c. 754, s. 1; 1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1985, c. 8; 1991, c. 59, s. 1, c. 761, s. 34.)
§ 131E-138. Licensure requirements.
(a) No person or governmental unit shall operate a home care agency without a license obtained from the Department. Nothing in this Part shall be construed to extend or modify the licensing of individual health professionals by the licensing boards for their professions or to create any new professional license category.
(b) Repealed by Session Laws 1991, c. 59, s. 1.
(c) An application for a license shall be available from the Department, and each application filed with the Department shall contain all information requested by the Department. A license shall be granted to the applicant upon a determination by the Department that the applicant has complied with the provisions of this Part and the rules promulgated by the Commission under this Part. The Department shall charge the applicant a nonrefundable annual license fee in the amount of five hundred ten dollars ($510.00).
(d) The Department shall renew the license in accordance with the rules of the Commission.
(e) Each license shall be issued only for the premises and persons named in the license and shall not be transferable or assignable except with the written approval of the Department.
(f) The license shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the licensed premises.
(g) The Commission shall adopt rules to ensure that a home care agency shall be deemed to meet the licensure requirements and issued a license without further review or inspection if: (i) the agency is already certified or accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, National League for Nursing, National Home Caring Council, North Carolina Accreditation Commission for In-Home Aide Services, or other entities recognized by the Commission and (ii) the agency is certified or accredited for all of the home care services that it provides; or (iii) in the case of continuing care retirement communities licensed by the North Carolina Department of Insurance under Article 64 of Chapter 58 which also have nursing beds licensed by the Department of Health and Human Services under Article 6 of Chapter 131E, the Department certifies, as part of its licensure review or survey of the nursing beds, that the facility also meets all of the rules and regulations adopted by the Commission pursuant to this Part. The Department may, at its discretion, determine the frequency and extent of the review and inspection of home health agencies already certified as meeting federal requirements, but not more frequently than on an annual basis for routine reviews. (1971, c. 539, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; 1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1; c. 761, s. 34; 1997-443, s. 11A.118(a); 2003-284, s. 34.4(a); 2005-276, s. 41.2(d); 2008-127, s. 2; 2009-451, s. 10.76(d).)
§ 131E-138.1. Licensure fees for nursing beds and adult care home beds in continuing care retirement communities.
The Department shall charge continuing care retirement communities licensed under Article 64 of Chapter 58 of the General Statutes that have nursing home beds or adult care home beds licensed by the Department a nonrefundable annual base license fee in the amount of four hundred fifty dollars ($450.00) plus a nonrefundable annual per-bed fee in the amount of twelve dollars and fifty cents ($12.50). (2003-284, s. 34.9(a); 2005-276, s. 41.2(i).)
§ 131E-139. Adverse action on a license.
(a) The Department may suspend, revoke, annul, withdraw, recall, cancel or amend a license when there has been a substantial failure to comply with the provisions of this Part or the rules promulgated under this Part.
(b) The provisions of Chapter 150B of the General Statutes, The Administrative Procedure Act, shall govern all administrative action and judicial review in cases where the Department has taken the action described in subsection (a). (1971, c. 539, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; 1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1987, c. 827, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1, c. 761, s. 34.)
§ 131E-140. Rules and enforcement.
(a) The Commission may adopt, amend and repeal all rules necessary for the implementation of this Part and Part 3A of Article 6 of this Chapter. Provided, these rules shall not extend, modify, or limit the licensing of individual health professionals by their respective licensing boards; nor shall these rules in any way be construed to extend the appropriate scope of practice of any individual health care provider. Rules authorized under this section include rules:
(1) That recognize the different types of home care services and shall adopt specific requirements for the provision of each type of home care service.
(2) To establish staff qualifications, including professional requirements for home care agency staff. The rules may require that one or more staff of an agency be either licensed or certified. The rules may establish minimum training and education qualifications for staff and may include the recognition of professional certification boards for those professions not licensed or certified under other provisions of the North Carolina General Statutes provided that the professional board evaluates applicants on a basis that protects the public health, safety, or welfare.
(3) For the purpose of ensuring effective supervision of in-home aide staff and timely provision of services, the Commission shall adopt rules defining geographic service areas for in-home aide services and staffing qualifications for licensed home care agencies.
(4) Prohibiting licensed home care agencies from hiring individuals listed on the Health Care Personnel Registry in accordance with G.S. 131E-256(a)(1).
(5) Requiring applicants for home care licensure to receive training in the requirements for licensure, the licensure process, and the rules pertaining to the operation of a home care agency.
(a1) The Commission shall adopt rules defining the scope of permissible advertising and promotional practice by home care agencies.
(b) The Department shall enforce the rules adopted or amended by the Commission with respect to home care agencies and shall conduct an inspection of each agency at least every three years. (1971, c. 539, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; 1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1; c. 761, s. 34; 2005-276, ss. 10.40A(a), 10.40A(o).)
§ 131E-141. Inspection.
(a) The Department shall inspect home care agencies in accordance with rules adopted by the Commission to determine compliance with the provisions of this Part and the rules established by the Commission.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of G.S. 8-53, "Communications between physician and patient," or any other provision of law relating to the confidentiality of communications between physician and patient, the representatives of the Department who make these inspections may review any writing or other record in any recording medium which pertains to the admission, discharge, medication, treatment, medical condition, or history of persons who are or have been clients of the agency being inspected unless that client objects in writing to review of that client's records. Physicians, psychiatrists, nurses, and anyone else involved in giving treatment at or through an agency who may be interviewed by representatives of the Department may disclose to these representatives information related to any inquiry, notwithstanding the existence of the physician-patient privilege in G.S. 8-53, "Communication between physician and patient," or any other rule of law; provided the client has not made written objection to this disclosure. The agency, its employees, and any person interviewed during these inspections shall be immune from liability for damages resulting from the disclosure of any information to the Department. Any confidential or privileged information received from review of records or interviews, except as noted in G.S. 131E-124(c), shall be kept confidential by the Department and not disclosed without written authorization of the client or legal representative, or unless disclosure is ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction. The Department shall institute appropriate policies and procedures to ensure that this information shall not be disclosed without authorization or court order. The Department shall not disclose the name of anyone who has furnished information concerning an agency without the consent of that person. Neither the names of persons furnishing information nor any confidential or privileged information obtained from records or interviews shall be considered "public records" within the meaning of G.S. 132-1, " 'Public records' defined." Prior to releasing any information or allowing any inspections referred to in this section, the client must be advised in writing by the licensed agency that the client has the right to object in writing to release of information or review of the client's records and that by an objection in writing the client may prohibit the inspection or release of the records.
(c) An agency must provide each client with a written notice of the Division of Health Service Regulation hotline number in advance of furnishing care to the client or during the initial evaluation visit before the initiation of services. (1971, c. 539, s. 1; 1973, c. 476, s. 128; 1981, c. 586, s. 2; 1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1; c. 761, s. 34; 1999-113, s. 4; 2005-276, s. 10.40A(b); 2007-182, s. 1.)
§ 131E-141.1. Penalties for violation.
Any person who knowingly and willfully establishes, conducts, manages or operates any home care agency without a license is guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor and upon conviction is liable only for a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500.00) for the first offense and not more than five hundred dollars ($500.00) for each subsequent offense. (1991, c. 59, s. 1, c. 761, s. 34; 1993, c. 539, s. 961; 1994, Ex. Sess., c. 24, s. 14(c).)
§ 131E-142. Injunction.
(a) Notwithstanding the existence or pursuit of any other remedy, the Department shall, in the manner provided by law, maintain an action in the name of the State for injunction or other process against any person or governmental unit to restrain or prevent the establishment, conduct, management or operation of a home care agency without a license.
(b) If any person shall hinder the proper performance of duty of the Secretary or a representative in carrying out the provisions of this Part, the Secretary may institute an action in the superior court of the county in which the hindrance occurred for injunctive relief against the continued hindrance irrespective of all other remedies at law.
(c) Actions under this section shall be in accordance with Article 37 of Chapter 1 of the General Statutes and Rule 65 of the Rules of Civil Procedure. (1983, c. 775, s. 1; 1991, c. 59, s. 1, c. 761, s. 34.)
§ 131E-143. Smoking prohibited; penalty.
(a) A home care agency shall prohibit its employees from smoking while providing services to an individual in the individual's home. The home care agency shall inform its clients that employees of the agency are prohibited from smoking in a client's home. As used in this section:
(1) "Employee" includes an individual under contract with the home care agency to provide home care services.
(2) "Smoking" means the use or possession of any lighted cigar, cigarette, pipe, or other lighted smoking product.
(b) The Department may impose an administrative penalty not to exceed two hundred dollars ($200.00) for each violation on any person who owns, manages, operates, or otherwise controls the home care agency and fails to comply with this section. A violation of this section constitutes a civil offense only and is not a crime. (2007-459, s. 4.)
§ 131E-144. Reserved for future codification purposes.
Part 3A. Home Care Clients' Bill of Rights.
§ 131E-144.1. Legislative intent.
It is the intent of the General Assembly to support an individual's desire to live at home and receive home care services. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n).)
§ 131E-144.2. Definitions.
Unless otherwise specified, the definitions that are provided in Part 3 of Article 6 of this Chapter apply in this Part. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n).)
§ 131E-144.3. Declaration of home care clients' rights.
Each client of a home care agency shall have the following rights:
(1) To be informed and participate in his or her plan of care.
(2) To be treated with respect, consideration, dignity, and full recognition of his or her individuality and right to privacy.
(3) To receive care and services that are adequate, appropriate, and in compliance with relevant federal and State laws and rules and regulations.
(4) To voice grievances about care and not be subjected to discrimination or reprisal for doing so.
(5) To have his or her personal and medical records kept confidential and not be disclosed except as permitted or required by applicable State or federal law.
(6) To be free of mental and physical abuse, neglect, and exploitation.
(7) To receive a written statement of services provided by the agency and the charges the client is liable for paying.
(8) To be informed of the process for acceptance and continuance of service and eligibility determination.
(9) To accept or refuse services.
(10) To be informed of the agency's on-call service.
(11) To be informed of supervisory accessibility and availability.
(12) To be advised of the agency's procedures for discharge.
(13) To receive a reasonable response to his or her requests of the agency.
(14) To be notified within 10 days when the agency's license has been revoked, suspended, canceled, annulled, withdrawn, recalled, or amended.
(15) To be advised of the agency's policies regarding patient responsibilities. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n); 2011-314, s. 6.)
§ 131E-144.4. Notice to client.
(a) During the agency's initial evaluation visit or before furnishing services, a home care agency shall provide each client with the following:
(1) A copy of the declaration of home care clients' rights.
(2) A copy of the agency's policies regarding client responsibilities as it relates to safety and care plan compliance.
(3) The address and telephone number for information, questions, or complaints about services provided by the agency.
(4) The address and telephone number of the section of the Department of Health and Human Services responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of this Part.
(b) Receipts for the declaration of home care clients' rights and contact information required in this section shall be signed by the client and shall be retained in the agency's files. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n).)
§ 131E-144.5. Implementation.
Responsibility for implementing the provisions of this Part shall rest with the home care agency director. Each agency shall provide appropriate training to implement this Part. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n).)
§ 131E-144.6. Enforcement and investigation.
(a) The Department of Health and Human Services shall be responsible for enforcing the provisions of this Part. The Department shall investigate complaints made to it and reply within a reasonable period of time, not to exceed 60 days.
(a1) When the Department of Health and Human Services receives a complaint alleging a violation of the provisions of this Part pertaining to client care or client safety, the Department shall initiate an investigation as follows:
(1) Immediately upon receipt of the complaint if the complaint alleges a life-threatening situation.
(2) Within 24 hours if the complaint alleges abuse of a client as defined by G.S. 131D-20(1).
(3) Within 48 hours if the complaint alleges neglect of a client as defined by G.S. 131D-20(8).
(4) Within two weeks in all other situations.
The investigation shall be completed within 30 days. The requirements of this section are in addition to and not in lieu of any investigatory and reporting requirements for health care personnel pursuant to Article 15 of this Chapter, or for adult protective services pursuant to Article 6 of Chapter 108A of the General Statutes.
(b) A home care agency shall investigate, within 72 hours, complaints made to the agency by a home care client or the client's family and must document both the existence of the complaint and the resolution of the complaint. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n).)
§ 131E-144.7. Confidentiality.
(a) The Department of Health and Human Services may inspect home care clients' medical records maintained at the agency when necessary to investigate any alleged violation of this Part.
(b) The Department shall maintain the confidentiality of all persons who register complaints with the Department and of all medical records inspected by the Department. A person who has filed a complaint shall have access to information about a complaint investigation involving a specific home care client if written authorization is obtained from the client or legal representative. (2005-276, s. 10.40A(n).)